In 1975, the Portuguese administration of Macao took the initiative to set up an anti-corruption agency but no progress was made in the following 17 years, during which several governors administered Macao. Anti-corruption work was carried out by the Judiciary Police on a limited scale. It was not until 1992 that the government completed the legislative procedures to establish the High Commission Against Corruption and Administrative Illegality (ACCCIA). However, the ACCCIA’s work was very much constrained by a lack of resources and a weak mandate.
The Establishment of the CCAC
The Special Administrative Region of Macao was established on 20th December 1999. The Commission Against Corruption was established in the Macao Special Administrative Region according to Article 59 of the Basic Law of Macao SAR. The CCAC shall function independently and its Commissioner shall be accountable to the Chief Executive. It adopts the dual-function of anti-corruption and ombudsman.
The Term of Office of the Successive Commissioners:
Cheong Weng Chon
20th December, 2014 - Present
Fong Man Chong
20th December, 2009 - 19th December, 2014
20th December, 1999 – 19th December, 2009
Luis Manuel Guerreiro de Mendonca Freitas (of the ACCCIA)
22nd November, 1995 – 19th December, 1999
Jorge Alberto Aragão Seia (of the ACCCIA)
22nd November, 1991 – 21st November, 1995
The Commissioner Against Corruption, Cheong Weng Chon
Review of Important Events
- On 6th March 1992, the office of the ACCCIA located in Rua Sanches de Miranda no. 3 officially went into operation.
- On 1st April 1997, the law regarding the power of the ACCCIA was revised. It entrusted the ACCCIA with the power to install under-cover agents and informers. Meanwhile, the criminals who assisted in investigation of corruption would be exempted from criminal penalty.
- On 28th August 1998, the Legislative Assembly approved Law no. 3/98/M, Declaration and Public Supervision of Incomes and Properties. Commonly known as the “Sunshine Law”, it obligates all civil servants to report their incomes and properties and those of their spouses to the ACCCIA or the High Court.
- On 20th December 1999, the Commission Against Corruption, Macao SAR was established.
- On 15th August 2000, Law no. 10/2000, Commission Against Corruption of the Macao Special Administrative Region, entered into force, demonstrating the strong determination of the Macao SAR Government to fight against corruption in the legal aspect.
- On 1st August 2001, the Chief Executive, by way of an order, established the Monitoring Committee on Discipline of the CCAC Personnel, which comprises five members with a 3-year renewable term.
- On 1st September 2003, Law no. 11/2003, Declaration of Incomes and Properties entered into effect.
- In January 2004, the CCAC established its first branch office (the Branch Office at Areia Preta) to provide more convenient channels for the public to seek consultations and lodge complaints and reports.
- On 10th February 2009, Administrative Bylaw no. 3/2009, Organisation and Operation of the Service of the Commission Against Corruption, entered into force.
- On 1st March 2010, Law no. 19/2009, Prevention and Suppression of Bribery in the Private Sector, entered into force, expanding the CCAC’s jurisdiction to the private sector.
- On 27th March 2012, the Law no. 4/2012, amendment to Law no. 10/2000, Commission Against Corruption of the Macao Special Administrative Region, entered into force.
- On 19th March 2013, Administrative Bylaw no. 3/2013, amendment to Administrative Bylaw 3/2009, Organisation and Operation of the Service of the Commission against Corruption, entered into effect.
- On 22nd April 2013, Law no. 1/2013, Legal Regime of Declaration of Assets and Interests, entered into force. It stipulates that all government officials holding the rank of deputy director or higher one shall make public part of the details of their assets and their concurrent positions outside the government.
- 1st January 2015, Law no. 10/2014, Prevention and Suppression of Bribery in External Trade, entered into force.